Bumikita: Surga Terumbu Karang Dunia Yang Perlu Dijaga

Published by Mangafest UGM on

Kawan, tahukah kalian bahwa negeri Indonesia merupakan surga terumbu karang yang paling kaya seantero dunia?

Selain memiliki pegunungan, hutan, sungai, dan pantai yang indah, masih ada lagi bagian lain dari alam Nusantara yang juga menyimpan pesona keindahan, yaitu alam bawah laut. Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan terluas di dunia. Memiliki lautan yang luasnya 70% dari total keseluruhan luas negaranya, membentang dari Sabang sampai Merauke, perairan Indonesia menyimpan kekayaan terumbu karang terbaik dunia. Kelompok terumbu karang yang hidup berdampingan dengan sejenis tumbuhan alga, membentuk koloni karang yang terdiri atas ribuan hewan kecil, ditambah lagi dengan ikan-ikan yang beraneka warna, kekayaan biologi serta kejernihan airnya, membuatnya semakin indah bagai surga. Keindahan inilah, yang membuat berbagai kawasan bawah laut Indonesia menjadi populer hingga ke mancanegara dan juga dikenal sebagai tempat wisata.

Status Terumbu Karang di Indonesia

Menurut catatan Greenpeace, luas terumbu karang di Indonesia mencapai 50.875 kilometer persegi yang menyumbang 18% luas total terumbu karang dunia dan 65% luas total di coral triangle. Sebagian besar terumbu karang ini berlokasi di bagian timur Indonesia. Terumbu karang Indonesia memiliki berbagai macam keanekaragaman hayati, tercatat ada lebih kurang 590 spesies karang keras, 76 yang mewakili lebih dari 95% jumlah spesies yang tercatat di Pusat Segitiga Terumbu Karang.

Di terumbu karang Indonesia terdapat populasi ikan dan biota laut lain yang banyak dan beraneka ragam dengan sedikitnya tercatat 2.200 spesies ikan karang di perairan Indonesia. Dari 2.200 spesies ikan karang, hanya 197 spesies yang dianggap endemik yang menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar spesies mempunyai ruaya yang luas dan saling berhubungan di seluruh Kawasan Segitiga Terumbu Karang (Desiana Wahyu, dkk, 2013). Hal ini membuktikan bahwa selain mempunyai keanekaragaman terumbu karang, Indonesia juga mempunyai kekayaan ikan dan biota laut untuk mendukungnya.

Ancaman Terhadap Terumbu Karang di Indonesia

Menurut data Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI) tahun 2017, dari 108 lokasi dan 1064 stasiun pantau di seluruh perairan Indonesia, terpantau sekitar 35,15 persen terumbu karang dalam kondisi jelek, 35,06 persen dalam kondisi cukup, 23,40 persen dalam kondisi baik, dan hanya sekitar 6,39 persen terumbu karang yang masih bisa dikatakan dalam kondisi sangat baik. Tiga kategori ini didasarkan pada persentase tutup karang hidup. Dimana  kategori sangat baik tutupan mencapai 76-100 persen, kata baik dengan tutupan 51-75 persen, kategori cukup 26-50 persen, dan kategori jelek degan tutupan 0-25 persen. Hasil pengamatan ini menunjukkan bahwa kondisi terumbu karang di perairan Indonesia dalam keadaan terancam dan perlu diwaspadai.

Menurut Kepala Pusat Penelitian Oseanografi LIPI, Dirhamsyah, hal ini disebabkan pada 2015 dan 2016 hampir di seluruh perairan Indonesia dilaporkan terjadi pemutihan karang yang diikuti dengan infeksi penyakit dan serangan hama. Ia juga mengatakan, hasil pengamatan di lapangan pada beberapa lokasi masih ditemukan aktivitas perusakan, seperti penangkapan ikan menggunakan bom, pencemaran, dan peningkatan pengembangan di wilayah pesisir.  (Republika.co.id, 2017).

Ajakan Menjaga Kelestarian Terumbu Karang Indonesia

Membaca tulisan diatas, dapat disimpulkan bahwa perlu adanya sebuah upaya khusus untuk menjaga keindahan alam bawah laut perairan Indonesia kita, kawan. Dari hal kecil seperti berhenti membuang sampah ke sungai dan laut, menangkap ikan tanpa menggunakan bahan peledak ataupun racun, tidak mengambil karang dan terumbu karang secara bebas dan semena-mena, serta mengikuti dan melaksanakan upaya pelestarian laut lainnya, kawan telah berkontribusi dalam menjaga keindahan laut Indonesia.

Ayo Jaga Ekosistem Laut Dan Terumbu Karang Indonesia!

Author : Affandi
Categories: News

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