Bumikita: Hutan di Indonesia dan Ancaman yang Menghantuinya

Published by Mangafest UGM on

Wilayah Indonesia terkenal akan keindahan alam hutan hujan tropisnya. Dengan total cakupan luas 133.300.543,98 ha, tidak mengherankan jika wilayah hutan di Indonesia selalu digadang-gadang sebagai paru-paru dunia. Namun, status keberlangsungan hidup dari paru-paru dunia ini kian hari makin terancam.

Dalam praktiknya, pembabatan hutan Indonesia sudah dimulai semenjak tahun 1970-1980 hingga memuncak pada tahun 1990-2000. Pada tahun 90an, deforestasi sudah mulai dan terjadi secara besar-besaran untuk industri perkayuan, perluasan area perkebunan, maupun pertambangan berskala besar.

Lebih parahnya lagi, semenjak melewati tahun 2000 hingga saat ini hal serupa masih saja terjadi. Menurut data dari Laboratorium Global Land Analysis & Discovery (GLAD) dari Universitas Maryland tahun 2015, data kehilangan tutupan pohon di Indonesia berada dalam tatanan tinggi antara tahun 2001 dan 2015.

Kehilangan tutupan hutan di Indonesia meningkat tajam di tahun 2012, yakni seluas 928.000 hektar (2,3 juta acre). Angka ini kemudian turun secara signifikan pada 2013 dan kemudian meningkat kembali pada 2014 dan 2015, yakni masing-masing seluas 796.500 hektar (2 juta acre) dan 735.000 hektar (2,8 juta acre).

Walaupun data terbaru menunjukan tingkat deforestasi Indonesia pada tahun 2017 menurun sebesar 60% dibandingkan dengan tahun 2016, luas tutupan hutan sampai sekarang masih terus berkurang secara pasti.

Akibat dari Deforestasi

Menurunnya luas tutupan hutan Indonesia tentu saja berdampak langsung terhadap kehidupan. Sebut saja Pulau Kalimantan, Sumatera, dan Papua. Pengalihan wilayah hutan gambut dalam menjadi lahan perkebunan kelapa sawit secara besar-besaran di Pulau Kalimantan membahayakan kekayaan biodiversity yang lengkap bagi kehidupan di sekitarnya, termasuk bagi satwa seperti bekantan. Sementara di Sumatera, satwa seperti orangutan menjadi sangat terancam. Di Papua, burung cendrawasih juga merasakan ancaman nyata karena habitat mereka yang berada di dalam hutan berkurang. Walaupun begitu, tidak hanya Pulau Kalimantan, Sumatera, dan Papua saja, daerah lainnya seperti di Pulau Jawa, Sulawesi, dan sebagainya juga merasakan kerusakan akibat penurunan jumlah hutan.

Cuaca yang tidak menentu juga menjadi tanda, bahwa perubahan iklim sedang terjadi akibat penurunan luas tutupan hutan. Anomali cuaca kemudian membuat para petani dan nelayan semakin sulit untuk menentukan proses kerja mereka sehingga berdampak pada penghasilan sehari-sehari pula. Dan ketika para petani tidak bisa bercocok tanam dan para nelayan tak bisa melaut lagi, maka darimana manusia akan mendapatkan makanan mereka?

Hal yang tidak kalah menakutkan adalah praktik pembukaan lahan dengan cara membakar. Membakar hutan tak hanya membunuh makhluk hidup yang tinggal di dalamnya, namun juga mampu menghadirkan bencana asap seperti kabut asap yang menyelimuti Riau pada tahun 2016 lalu. Kejadian tersebut melengkapi tanda terjadinya deforestasi yang berdampak buruk bagi semua makhluk hidup.

Upaya Pencegahan Deforestasi

Dilansir dari downtoearth-indonesia.org , usulan-usulan untuk pencegahan deforestasi terbagi menjadi dua kelompok utama.

Kelompok pertama: pendekatan berbasis pasar – mengaitkan skema-skema pengurangan deforestasi dengan sistem perdagangan karbon. Koalisi negara-negara yang memiliki hutan hujan (the Coalition for Rainforest Nations), sebagian besar LSM konservasi dan kalangan bisnis pendanaan karbon mendorong skema-skema dimana negara-negara yang memiliki hutan mendapat kredit penurunan emisi karbon bila tidak menebangi hutan mereka. Kredit ini dapat dijual di pasar karbon internasional kepada negara-negara yang memiliki industri beremisi karbon yang membutuhkan kredit untuk menjalankan operasi mereka. Hal ini menimbulkan masalah etika sebab negara dan perusahaan dapat membeli hak untuk tetap mencemari atmosfir bumi.

Kelompok kedua: Pendekatan dana publik – memakai dana bantuan dari negara-negara kaya untuk membayar negara-negara kaya hutan di Selatan untuk mengurangi pembukaan hutan. Bantuan tersebut dikumpulkan melalui sumbangan sukarela dari negara-negara industri atau lewat pajak. Indonesia dan Brazil suka dengan pilihan ini. Apakah pembayaran dilakukan setiap tahun atau dengan jangka waktu tertentu dan apakah pembayaran dilakukan dimuka atau setelah ada tindakan juga masih dalam negosiasi.

Author : Affandi
Categories: NewsPost

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